WA – Mount St Helens National Volcanic Monument, Loowit Falls

May 18, 1980 What do you remember about this event? Honestly my memory banks couldn’t recall many of the details. For those with a memory like mine, here’s a quick link from USGS, 30 Cool Facts about Mount St Helens. The Monument was established in 1982 to provide for scientific research, education and recreation. It’s another managed by the USFS.

Mount St Helens last erupted 123 years ago. It’s the most active volcano in the Cascade Range.

There are three areas to visit, westside (State Route 504), southside (Forest Road 83) and eastside (Forest Road 99). My initiation was along State Route 504 where the Johnson Ridge Observatory is located, named after a scientist who perished in the blast. I arrived on a typical drizzly Pacific Northwest Day, more common in June than in mid July.

The mountain said, nope not today. Factoid: “Within 3 minutes, the lateral blast, traveling at more than 300 miles per hour, blew down and scorched 230 square miles of forest.” Source: USGS 

Okay maybe a peek at my peak. Factoid: “The largest terrestrial landslide in recorded history reduced the summit by 1,300 feet and triggered a lateral blast.”  Source: USGS 

I took a short hike on the Boundary trail focusing on the flowers.

Loowit Falls

The next day with much improved weather, I was off to find Loowit Falls.

Dropping down from the ridge into the blast zone reminded me of my Grand Canyon experiences. You have to drop into the belly to experience the hidden gems. It’s hard to imagine this area now known as Pumice Plain once a thick forest.

Loowit Falls are ON the mountain so I’d be crossing the Pumice Plain.

What looks like dried grass is actually a mossy wildflower carpet.

 

Just think, it took nearly 40 years to achieve this much growth. Reminds me of how slowly forests regenerate after extremely hot forest fires. Factoid: “Small plants and trees beneath winter snow, and roots protected by soil, survived the May 18, 1980 eruption and now thrive. Thousands of birds, mammals, reptiles, amphibians, and millions of hatchery fingerlings perished in the eruption. Late May 1980—Wind-dispersed spiders and scavenging beetles were among the first animals to return to the Mount St. Helens area. The landscape devastated by the eruption has evolved into a rich and diverse habitat for plants and animals.”

In fact some areas included thick bushes, predominantly Sitka Alder, streams, trees and more water loving flowers.

There were large tent caterpillar nests, in fact the largest I’ve ever seen.

Who was Harry Truman? I was hiking toward Harry’s Ridge and descending in the canyon on the Truman trail.

I assumed there must have been a President Harry Truman connection, but no, this was a very different Harry Truman.

This is Harry’s Ridge, which is said to offer the best views of Spirit Lake. I didn’t hike the ridge during this trip.

It was interesting to see newly formed ponds and water channel changes. The mounds are known as hummocks, created by earth blasted from the mountain. 

Geology was everywhere. I’m guessing this is a lava bomb.

You’ll find Loowit Falls in the middle of this photo. Factoid: “March 20, 1980—A magnitude 4.2 earthquake signaled the reawakening of the volcano after 123 years.”

 

 

 

When I started seeing white fur, my mind went to mountain goats. I couldn’t help but wonder.

As I neared the falls, why yes, I spied a goat.

Soon enough I found the herd.

Spirit Lake

When I saw the white on the lake, my first thought was ice. Given temperatures and snow levels, I was confused. Well sure enough it was floating logs, a so called log mat covering 40% of the surface with about 350,000 acre-feet of pyrolized trees. There is now 200 feet of sediment in the lake increasing the diameter nearly three fold. Harry Truman and his lodge are buried beneath that sediment. Factoid: “Prior to 1980, there were six camps on the shore of Spirit Lake: a Boy Scout camp (Columbia Pacific Council), a Girl Scout camp, two YMCA camps (Longview YMCA camp Loowit, and Portland YMCA camp), Harmony Fall Lodge, and another for the general public. There were also a number of lodges catering to visitors, including Spirit Lake Lodge and Mt. St. Helens Lodge; the latter was inhabited by Harry R. Truman, who became one of the volcano’s victims.”

I was curious about the source of the lake and found this from USGS,

Research suggests that Spirit Lake is an intermittent lake: it has been repeatedly dammed by volcanic material, filled to capacity with water, and at least partially drained due to dam failures causing several major floods and lahars down the North Fork Toutle River. It is believed that pyroclastic flows around 3,350 years ago first dammed the river to form the lake, and then it overflowed and was likely dammed again by debris avalanches prior to the May 18, 1980 eruption.

In early 1980, Spirit Lake was the source of the North Fork Toutle River. However, this changed when the 18 May debris avalanche deposit blocked the outlet of Spirit Lake, and caused the volcano’s newly formed crater to become the source of the river. The debris avalanche raised the surface elevation of Spirit Lake 64 m (210 ft) and filled its natural outlet to a depth of 84 m (276 ft). Without an outlet, runoff from rain and snow caused the lake level to continue to rise, which threatened to breach the unstable blockage.

In November 1982 a pumping station and pipeline were installed to regulate the rising level of Spirit Lake, while a tunnel was bored through bedrock to provide a permanent, stable outlet. Water released from the pump outlet fed into the North Fork of the Toutle River. In May 1985, the tunnel connecting Spirit Lake and South Coldwater Creek was opened.

This photo I took from a hike up Mount Margaret does a better job showing the log mat. It’s hard to imagine the blast caused an 800 foot wave that pushed water and debris over Johnson Ridge. So many questions, did Johnson Ridge exist before the blast? Did the height change?

You can zoom this photo to see the location of Harry’s Lodge.

There were plenty of reminders that this is an active study area.

Adventure Date(s):

  • July 17-18, 2019

Hike Details: Tips:

  • This was one of those places where there aren’t public lands near the trailheads on the Johnson Ridge side. It makes for nearly impossible dispersed camping. Backcountry camping permits are tough to obtain. I stayed at Seaquest Campground. While spendy for my budget, at least they have forested semi-private campsites. The biggest issue is that you cannot get a walk-up permit until after 2:30pm. Sites are priced based on popularity. It’s a 50-mile drive from the campground to Johnson Ridge so not something I wanted to do daily. One b..onus however is that they do have showers.
  • I stopped at the Visitor Center in Castle Rock. The rangers were knowledgeable and helpful with getting basic maps and hiking trail info. The interpretative displays require a fee separate from your Park Pass. Save your money and time for Johnson Ridge.
  • It’s worthwhile spending time at the Johnson Ridge Observatory. I found the film very informative.
  • Loved their cartoon reminders.

Resources:

Links:

 

 

OR – Newberry National Volcanic Monument, Paulina Region

Over the years, I’ve traveled through Bend many times, but until now my timing has never been optimal to explore the area. After a 5-week travel hiatus, it was time to begin my summer jaunt. Can you believe the Newberry Volcano is the largest in the Cascade Range? It’s also one of the newest National Monuments receiving the status in 1990, and only one of 12 managed by the US Forest Service.

There are three areas of the monument with the southern region the most diverse. I visited several trails in that section during my recent visit.

Hike #1 – Paulina Falls and Creek Trail

Besides Paulina (pronounced Pol-EYE-nuh) Lake, the Falls are probably the most visited areas of the park. There is a short 1/4 mile trail to the falls but it also extends to the top of the falls and along the creek to a crossing and the opposite shore.

Hike #2 – Big Obsidian Flow Trail

This is another short hike of about one mile. Ask at the Paulina Visitor Center if there will be a ranger talk. There was one scheduled for the day I visited but the timing didn’t work for my schedule. The trail is quite rocky. I was glad to be wearing my hiking shoes and prepared with my hiking poles. There is excellent interpretive signage along the trail.

Hike #3 – Little Crater Trail

This trail was in excellent shape offering views of Paulina Lake, but most impressive was the view of the 1,300 year old Big Obsidian Flow. There were even a few wildflower sightings. It was a less than a 2-mile loop with about 400′ of elevation gain/loss.

Hike #4 – Newberry Crater Trail

I really wanted to experience being on the rim and seeing if I could get a better perspective of the 17-square mile caldera, so this trail seemed the best opportunity. There is a 21-mile loop trail along the rim; however, no backcountry camping is allowed so biking, running or fast hiking are the best options to experience it in one go. There are several access points so you can create a series of loops to experience more of the rim. This was 7 mile, 1,100′ foot elevation/gain, zero WOW-factor hike until the end when you’re rewarded with a view.

Virtual Hike – Paulina Peak

After my full day of hiking, I drove to the peak rather than hiking the 2-mile, 1,400′ elevation gain/loss trail. It was a perfect way to end my trip as the view of the caldera, lakes, flow and other volcanic features were highlighted from this perspective.

The skies weren’t very cooperative on this visit keeping mostly hidden the distant mountains. I was glad for at least a glance while on Paulina Peak where I could see Three Sisters.

Adventure Date(s):

  • July 10, 2019

Tips:

  • There is no backcountry camping (car or backpacking) allowed in the park. There are several nice campgrounds.
  • Dispersed camping is available on forest service roads outside the park as well as at the nearby snow parks.
  • Another recommended trail I’d hike in the future is the Peter Skene Ogden National Recreation Trail.
  • A ranger recommended the Lava Cast Forest. I’m sure it’ll be very interesting as I was introduced to these fascinating fossils at Craters of the Moon National Park.

Resources:

Links:

 

OR – Three Sisters Wilderness, Tam McArthur Rim Trail

I love interpretative signage. 

The hike climbs out of the Three Creek Lake basin providing views of the cascades. My friends Jill and Robert were great about helping to orient me and learn the names of the peaks. 

You also get views of the Tam McArthur Rim high above the lake.

As you enter Three Sisters Wilderness, you lose the views while wandering through the forest.

There was still a bit of snow around on this mid June day. 

Looking back at Three Creek Lake from Tam McArthur Rim. There were wildfires and subsequent smoke affecting the distant views. 

This is the jump off point for further exploration including Broken Top summit attempts. 

From this vantage point you can see Broken Top and South, Middle and North Sister Mountains. 

Mount Bachelor appears to be a hop, skip and jump away.

Broken Top (you can see how it got it’s name). 

I had a hard time picking up my jaw when I saw this view. WOW WOW WOW! 

Then we off in search of Lava Bombs, which I’d recently learned about during my visit to Craters of the Moon National Monument and Preserve. The Wikipedia definition, “A volcanic bomb is a mass of molten rock (tephra) larger than 64 mm (2.5 inches) in diameter, formed when a volcano ejects viscous fragments of lava during an eruption. They cool into solid fragments before they reach the ground.” 

There was so much to love about this day. Thank you again Robert and Jill. This was my kind of place. Your company and knowledge added much to this adventure. You know I’m in heaven when I take a zillion photos!

There were lots of other volcanic treasures to explore. 

Adventure Date(s):

  • June 19, 2018

Hike Details:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Resources:

Links:

ID – Craters of the Moon National Monument and Preserve

From Dinosaur National Monument, I continued my wanderings by taking a drive through the Sheep Creek Geologic area in Utah, followed by a quick but uneventful visit to Fossil Butte National Monument in Wyoming (maybe third time will bring success), and finally I reached Idaho. 

With a few days remaining before I needed to be in Boise for a wedding, I found the perfect place to explore.

Of course my eyes were immediately drawn to the Pioneer Mountains. I wondered how soon they’d be accessible.

I found the geologic history interesting. 

These tiny pink monkeyflowers were a great accent to the black volcanic landscape. 

I hiked most of the trails with the exception of the Wilderness Trail. 

Signage was exceptional. 

Since there weren’t many wildflowers I found myself drawn to rocks.

Hiking the Broken Top Loop Trail provides many opportunities for learning. Be sure to grab an interpretive guide from the Visitor Center. 

Pressure ridge 

Pahoehoe (ropy) lava flows 

Tree molds were one of the more challenging features to find. If you look closely at this picture, there is a trough just above the sign and to the right. Per NPS literature, “tree molds are an impression left in the lava of the charred surface of a tree.” 

I also visited several of the lave tube caves including this one on the Broken Top Loop Trail. NOTE: be sure to grab a cave permit from the Visitor Center as one is required to enter caves.

Collapsed lava tube 

A benefit of staying in the park campground was hiking at sunset and sunrise. The North Crater Trails begin at the campground. 

Views along the North Crater Trail were exceptional. 

It was an awesome experience to walk the ridges of the cinder cones, especially early in the morning when I had the place to myself.

Yep, all MINE – even mid morning on the Friday before Memorial Day weekend. Notice the duck tape on my fender.

If you’re lucky, you might just spy some petrified wood. 

Keeping the cinder from shifting isn’t an easy task. Kudos to the trail builders and maintainers. There’s a reason they ask hikers to stay on trail and to respect closed areas. 

Look at all that volcanic activity. So much history in one place. 

My wildflower finds. 

It’s a harsh environment for wildflowers. They are few and far between as demonstrated in the following photo. 

I truly love being surprised when places exceed expectations; this one was a home run! 

My one frustration this trip was road construction. I got stuck several times waiting my turn in one-way traffic but this incident topped the cake. I’d planned to hike the Caves Trail when I completed my early morning jaunt on North Crater Trail. But, due to construction the normal one-way driving loop to Caves Trail was blocked with only access to Broken Top and Tree Molds trails. Since I’d already hiked Broken Top I hiked the Tree Molds trail. On my return I was happy to find the Caves Trail parking open. I hiked to the various caves but upon returning to my car I found myself and many others included a couple buses of preschoolers blocked in. No one was manning the blocked entrance/exit. I was first in line to exit. We waited and waited and waited as the road has just been sealed. We called the visitor center and they didn’t know status either and weren’t able to contact the contractors. Finally the bus drivers decided to bust through the barricade. What was I to do but follow? HELLO, this was the Friday of Memorial Day weekend. 

Adventure Date(s):

  • May 24-25, 2018

Tips:

  • Obtain a cave permit from the Visitor Center. It’s free and required to enter the caves. Also grab a copy of the caves interpretative guide.
  • Pick up a copy of the free hiking trails guide from the Visitor Center, plus the one detailed for Broken Top.
  • If you are interested in geology be sure to ask for the free handout at the Visitor Center. 
  • Consider staying at the NPS campground. It was worth it for me to have evening and morning access although there is dispersed camping opportunities within 30 minutes of the park.
  • Photography is especially challenging under harsh sunlight conditions.
  • It’s a HOT place in the summer!

Resources:

Links:

NM – Valles Caldera National Preserve

After learning about volcanic tuff during my visit to Bandelier National Monument and Kasha-Katuwe Tent Rocks National Monument, how could I skip the place responsible for creating these geologic marvels?

“Valles Caldera began erupting 1.25 million years ago. Once the eruption ended, the massive pyroclastic flow material inside and outside the caldera began to cool and solidify, forming a rock geologists refer to as tuff. Solidified pyroclastic flow materials from the Valles Caldera and Toledo Caldera comprise the Upper and Lower Bandelier Tuffs. Much earlier, 7-6 million years ago, Bearhead Rhyolite erupted in the southern Jemez Mountains sending debris flows over the area now known as Kasha-Katuwe Tent Rocks National Monument.” Source: Valles Caldera National Preserve Guide and Map by High Desert Field Guides

At the time of my visit, this park was touted as the “Nation’s Newest National Preserve.” The Valles Caldera Preservation Act of 2000 signed by President Bill Clinton on July 25, 2000, created 89,000-acre Valles Caldera National Preserve. By the way, valles is pronounced VIE-yays or va-yes.

Beware of restricted access hours. I found myself at the gates saying OPEN, OPEN, OPEN. 

Little did I know a reward for my timely arrival was a road filled with hundreds of crazed prairie dogs racing back and forth creating a death-wish obstacle course. I wish I would have thought to video this frenzy. The rangers said it was the first time they had witnessed such an event. When I left later in the day all was quiet. 

As I looked around I noticed these porta-potty looking buildings. I learned they are used by grad students studying prairie dogs as part of John Hoogland’s Prairie Dog Project, which he began in 1974.

It was funny to see the prairie dogs labeled like race car drivers. 

Their homes were also labeled. JB will you come home?

Many roads had not been opened for the season so my options for exploration were fairly limited. Experienced anglers brought bikes as a way to reach more distant water features. Adjacent to the Visitor Center is the 1.6 mile trail around Cerro La Jara, one of many hills left behind after the caldera collapse.

Be sure to pick up a free interpretive guide at the Visitor Center. 

Cerro La Jara was not much to look at. I’m guessing it’d be nicer during green grass and wildflower season.

To gain a view of the preserve, the rangers recommended I hike the trail up Rabbit Mountain. 

You know how much I enjoy hiking through burn areas. Sigh! 

Good reminder of LNT. I met some hikers collecting antlers on a nearby road, so this seems to be a thing in this area. I heard collectors are paid well.

The aspen trees are sure to put on a show in the fall. 

I hiked up to Rabbit Ridge, about 5.5 miles round trip with a little over 1,000 feet elevation gain.

For some reason I don’t think I’ll be visiting Bandelier National Monument from this trail. Just say no to bushwhacking.

The views from the ridge were less than stellar but I’m sure better than before the fire. 

Chasing butterflies in honor of Joan was a good distraction. 

The trail was well marked. 

Adventure Date(s):

  • April 23, 2018

Tips:

Resources:

Links:

 

CA – Black Butte with views of Mt Shasta

It’s actually quite embarrassing to not have hiked the Black Butte Trail, especially since I’ve driven by the butte at least a zillion times. It stands next to Interstate 5 and looks a bit like a Mt Shasta mini me. I assumed there wouldn’t be much too see except stellar views of the west side of Mt Shasta. It looks like a big pile of rocks. Not exactly something high on my check list. My friend Steve was partnering with me for this adventure and took this sunrise photo to get us motivated. 

It was in the high 20’s when we arrived at the trailhead.

This caution sign was posted at the trailhead. We spent most of the hike wondering about the definition of gabion. 

Much of the trail is on the protected north side, making for chilly, snowy, icy conditions. But look at that fantastic view of Mt Shasta. We marveled at the trail builders who created this path through volcanic rock. 

I’d say this is a pretty accurate description for this trail. 

As I anticipated, plenty of rocks to hike among. 

One of the surprises for me was finding these smaller mounds of lava rocks near the trail. They aren’t visible from afar but are quite large and actually create a channel or canyon. 

In the distance is Mt Eddy (link to recent related post). 

As we neared the summit, there was more of this layered type rock. 

My hiking buddy, Steve, enjoying views of Mt Shasta on his way to the summit of Black Butte. 

The foundation of an old fire lookout tower remains on the summit. I met a couple guys on their first trip to far Northern California. They hadn’t heard of lookout stations, so I spent a bit of time talking about their history as well as pointing out local points of interest. The Black Butte was created for the mules resupplying staff manning the lookout. As a result, it has a gentle grade.  I have a special connection to lookouts as my mom was raised on one near Happy Camp and my dad maintained lookout radios for Klamath National Forest. He frequently saved those trips for the weekend when he could take the family. Photo Credit: Steve 

Our new friends Kyle and Matt at Black Butte summit. 

I like the next couple photos as it shows the technical challenges for those seeking a seat in the lookout foundation. Photo Credit: Steve 

There were some large sections of surface hoar. I’d not seen this variety previously. We tend to get very wet snow but when it’s cold and dry, the powder evaporates and transforms into this very light, dry element. It was about 4-6″ deep and fun to kick through, much like a trail covered in leaves. I’ve since learned this creates serious avalanche conditions. Imagine a sandwich. This loose dry layer wedged between an old base of hard-packed snow and a new layer of wet snow, creating easy slippage in steep terrain. This is why it’s important to take an avalanche course if you’re going to spend time in the back country during snow season. #knowbeforeyougo 

Back to the term gabion “a basket or cage filled with earth or rocks and used especially in building a support or abutment.” In the below photo, you can see how the cage of rocks creates a wall to protect the trail from rock fall. 

The gabion lying perpendicular to the slope slid down from an upper section of trail. 

Extra Credit:

I’d planned to spend the weekend backpacking on the PCT north of Deadfall Lakes (link to recent related post) but found too much snow. As such I spent the day hiking up an ATV road. I found some fun surprises! 

A different type of hoarfrost. Looks like amoeba.

Hike Details:

  • Date(s) Hiked: December 9, 2017
  • Mileage (per ViewRanger): 5.25 miles round trip
  • Elevation Gain/Loss (per ViewRanger): 2,175/2,175
  • Elevation Low/High (per ViewRanger): 4,535/6,231
  • Trail Conditions:
    • Tree obstacles: minimal
    • Overgrowth: minimal
    • Signage: adequate
    • Terrain: rocky, some exposure, some scrambling
  • Navigation Skills: minimal
  • Water availability: none
  • Camping availability: none
  • Solitude: unlikely, we saw about 10 others
  • Bugs: none in early December
  • Wildlife: none
  • Precip: none
  • Temp: high 20’s to mid 40’s
  • LNT: no problems
  • Jan’s Cherry Picker Delight Scale: 3+ cherries (out of 5)

Tips:

  • Carry plenty of water. In the summer this trail is pretty exposed.
  • Be prepared for rocky terrain, covered in ice or snow in the winter. Microspikes are a good option.
  • Be aware of avalanche dangers in the winter.
  • In the winter it can be bitter cold and windy.

Links:

Resources:

According to Wikipedia,

Black Butte is a cluster of overlapping dacite lava domes in a butte,[2] a parasitic satellite cone of Mount Shasta.[5] It is located directly adjacent to Interstate 5 at milepost 742 between the city of Mount Shasta and Weed, California. The highway crosses a 3,912 ft (1,192 m) pass, Black Butte Summit, at the western base of the lava domes. The lava domes were extruded at the foot of the cone of Shastina following the period of its major eruptions about 9,000–10,000 years ago.[2]

United States Forest Service fire lookout tower was built on the summit in the 1930s, but destroyed during the Columbus Day Storm of 1962. A new lookout was built in 1963 and operated until 1973. The building was moved by helicopter to a new location in 1975 and only the concrete foundation remains today. A 2.5-mile-long (4.0 km) trail leads to the summit from a trailhead accessible by dirt roads off the Everitt Memorial Highway.[6] The summit boasts an outstanding view of the southwest side of Shasta and Shastina, and on clear days Mount McLoughlin is easily visible 70 miles (113 km) to the north in Oregon.[7]

NM – El Malpais- Sandstone Bluffs, The Narrows and La Ventana Arch

Conveniently located on Highway 117 just off Interstate 40 near Grants are three attractions worth a stop. You can easily spend a day or two exploring these areas. Be sure to stop at the El Malpais Ranger Station for maps and information.

Sandstone Bluffs

Mount Taylor dominates the skyline. 

The Chain of Craters, which I’d visited a few days earlier, is denoted on the left as Cerros (mountains in spanish).

Walking on this flat sandstone mesa is a pleasant contrast to the lava rock terrain I’d experienced on the Zumi-Acoma Trail

Beyond the views were nooks and crannies to be explored. 

Looking toward The Narrows mesa and the lava flow separating it from the Sandstone Bluffs mesa.

Talk about a bathtub with a view. 

THE Narrows or Narrows Rim Trail

I enjoyed the topography of the lava flow and seeing the Chain of Craters cinder cones from a different perspective.

This is called The Narrows as the lava flow stopped just short of this 3-mile long, 500-foot high escarpment, leaving a narrow corridor which naturally became a path of travel.  You can see the road below the rocks in this photo. 

The colorful rocks provided a stark contrast to the black lava field.

Look at those cracks and circular patterns.

You can see the forest beginning to take shape. Amazing anything can take root in these black crusted fields. 

Beyond the views, I enjoyed the sandstone sculptures and geologic features.

Caverns and crevasses warrant exploration. 

Finding nests and watching birds soar was another highlight. 

La Ventana Arch

This view is via a short trail along Highway 117. You can also begin or end your hike on the mesa of The Narrows Trail where a much different perspective of the arch is afforded. Without a second vehicle I didn’t have sufficient time to complete this as an out and back hike.

I was there at the wrong time of day for best viewing and photos.

Date(s) Hiked: March 9, 2016

Road Trip Day(s) #19 out of 88

Resources:

Links: